Linux is an open-source operating system (OS). Here open source means that we can modify the source code of Linux according to us. Linux operating system shows everything in a file system, even the hardware devices that we attached and the terminal we use also appears as a file in Linux. And to see the information related to the terminal which is shown as a file, a command has also been set, called tty. The tty command basically prints the filename of the terminal associated with the standard input.
FAQ Related tty command :
- What is tty in Linux?
- What is tty7 in command line?
- How tty command works?
- How to make tty only return exit status?
So these are some of the most frequently asked questions, and here’s the answer…
What is tty in Linux?
TTY is actually a mythological technology-based name, it belongs to early-age computers, at which time computers had teletypewriters as terminals, so you could see the output of printed programs.
In Linux, tty is the physical terminal from which you logged in. In most of the cases, tty7 is where your window manager runs and from which you login. It displays your terminal related information. This command allows you to interact with the system by going to the system’s data that you input, and displaying the output produced by the system.
As I mentioned above, the tty command basically prints the file name of the terminal connected to standard input and following is its syntax:
And here’s how the tool’s man page explains it:
Print the file name of the terminal connected to standard input.
How tty command works?
Using tty command is so easy, you don’t have to type anything long, just type “tty” and run the command, it will print the file name of the terminal connected to standard input. You can also use “who” or “w” command to find out the terminal. Apart from linux, this command is also available on Solaris, FreeBSD, and other Unixish operating systems.
Example: I typed the command
It showed me the following output, on my Linux system:
Note: – If it is not running inside a terminal, then the command produces a message like “not a tty.”
What is tty7 in Command Line
This one is the most asked question, most of the Linux users have this question that whenever they typed the who command, they see their user name and date, and tty7. But they don’t know what tty7 is. Although I have mentioned about it earlier in this article, but once again let’s understand it, properly and in easy words.
As we all know Linux is a multi-user system, which allows many users to work on it simultaneously on different terminals. Usually, there are seven terminals (including the one you are working on so far) on a Linux operating system, and you can log into them as different users to conducts different works.
We can work on all at the same time, so on which virtual terminal we are working on, we get information about it from the tty at the top. Any number from 1 to 7 can be written next to tty, this number shows us which terminal we are working on right now. And why we see tty7 most of the time, is because tty7 is the physical terminal in which we usually logged in. And most of the time, tty7 is where our window manager runs.
How to Navigate Between Different tty(terminal)
So it is easy to change the terminal, you can navigate between all the 7 terminals by using the following command.
Ctrl + Alt + Fn (1 to 7) key
If you want to go to tty1 you can press ctrl + alt + F1, and for tty 2 ctrl + alt + F2, for tty3 ctrl + alt + F3 and thus just by changing the function key, you can go to the rest of the terminal.
There exists a command-line option -s which silences the tty command to generate no output. Just the exit status is returned. There are some other options also…
It does is produce an exit value, however:
0 if standard input is a terminal
1 if standard input is not a terminal
2 if given incorrect arguments
3 if a write error occurs
So this is everything about the tty command in Linux. Hopefully, you have got the answers to all your questions, still, if you want to know more about tty in Linux, you can ask us in the comments section.
how to fix error message “This device can’t use a Trusted Platform Module”
“This device can’t use a Trusted Platform Module”, Many of you must have got this error message before. A few days ago I also encountered this error and for a while, I was also shocked that what it is? But then when I went into its depth, I found that this is a common error and like many other errors it can be easily removed. You just need to know what is the correct procedure.
As I said I faced this issue a few days ago, it happened while I was enabling BitLocker in one of my old Windows 10 PC, then suddenly I got an error message “This device can’t use a Trusted Platform Module”. At that time I was completely unaware of this error, and that’s why I tried to know it, and finally, I was able to find a solution. So let’s know what it is, but before going to the procedure first you need to know that what is TPM “Trusted Platform Module”?
What is Trusted Platform Module (TPM)
Trusted Platform Module (TPM), this heavy term is used for a special type of chip that attaches to new processors and comes with some additional security features. In the Windows system, Bitlocker uses Trusted Platform Module TPM, it stores the encryption key on the chip. After that, the second thing that TPM performs authenticate is your encrypted computer and give you access to all the encrypted data when the device trying to access it is identified as trusted. TPM chip is useful but It is not that if you do not have a chip that supports TPM, you will not be able to use BitLocker, you can use BitLocker even in that case, but then you need to store the encryption key on a USB stick.
Steps to Fix The Error “This device can’t use a Trusted Platform Module”
All we have to do is to make some necessary tampering with the group policy settings, which will allow us to enable BitLocker without TPM chip. Nothing you will find tough in this process, you can do it simply, by just following the steps I shared below.
- Turn on your Windows PC and press the Windows Key + R to open the “Run” dialog box or you can also open “Run” by clicking on the Start button in Windows 10 and typing in Run.
- In the Run dialog box, type “gpedit.msc” and press Enter to open the group policy editor settings.
- After opening the group policy editor, click on the Computer Configuration section from the left-hand panel and then open the following sections step by step
Administrative Templates -> Windows Components -> BitLocker Drive Encryption -> Operating System Drives
- Now after opening all the sections one by one in the end, you will get an option called “Require additional authentication at startup” on the right-hand side. Open it by clicking twice on it.
- In “Require additional authentication at startup” settings box, you will find that by default “Not Configured” is selected there, you’ll have to change it on “Enable” by clicking on the Enabled radio button.
- After that check the option which says “Allow BitLocker without a compatible TPM” and press OK, though it should be checked automatically after the step 5 process if not then do it by yourself.
- Now close the group policy editor section and go back to the BitLocker screen and try to enable BitLocker again. I am sure this time you won’t get the error message “This device can’t use a Trusted Platform Module”, and instead of this, you will see the BitLocker setup screen. When you click Next, the installation of BitLocker will be started on your Windows 10 system.
So hopefully, now you know what needs to be done if you get an error message on your PC screen which says “This device can’t use a Trusted Platform Module”. One thing I want to be clear here that, there is no real security loss to using BitLocker without a TPM, it’s just that the encryption key has to be stored on a USB drive instead of being stored on the TPM supported chip. So that’s it, this is the process but still, if there are any questions in your mind regarding this error or enabling BitLocker in your windows system, you can ask us in the comments section.
How To Find Saved WiFi Password in Windows 10
Highlights: In this article, we will talk about how we can find saved wifi password in Windows 10, and also we will see how we can Find passwords for Wi-Fi networks you’ve previously connected on Windows 10…..
It often happens that after setting the wifi password we forget it, then later when we need it, we don’t remember it. Apart from this it also happens very often that our siblings change the password of wifi secretly from us, which makes it difficult for us to find it. Also sometimes we lose the password of our office wifi, for which it is a bit awkward to ask again, so what we can do in such situation, so do not worry when such situations come in front of you, because you can find the password without anyone’s help, and without resetting the password.
In one of our old articles, we had learned how we can find wifi password in windows 7, windows 8, and Windows 8.1. And going beyond that, in our today’s article, we will know how we can find saved wifi password in Windows 10. Also, in this article, we will know how can we find the passwords of our old connected wifi devices. So let’s start with our first topic “How to find saved wifi password in Windows 10″…
How To Find Saved WiFi Password in Windows 10
The question that most of the people ask is, can we get our WiFi Network’s password back? the answer of which is yes. Your window 10 system helps you find your WiFi network password, Because once you connect your WiFi network to your PC, your WiFi password is automatically saved in Windows Systems. And you can get the password whenever you need it. As I mentioned above, you can easily find the WiFi password in windows 10 just you have to follow some easy steps, so to find the password for the network that you’re currently connected to, follow these simple steps…
- Turn on your windows 10 pc, on the computer screen, the bottom of the right side on the taskbar you will find the WiFi icon, right-click on that icon.
- Now you will get two options first “Troubleshoot problems” and second “Open Network and Sharing Center”, where you need to click on the second option “Open Network and Sharing Center”.
- On the Network and Sharing Center page, you will get the WiFi network’s name and details that your pc is currently connected with. Now click on the name of your current WiFi Network’s name.
- Clicking on the WiFi network’s name will take you to the WiFi status summary. At the end of the summary you will get two options, first option “Details” and second option “Wireless Properties”, you need to click on the second option “Wireless Properties”.
- On the Wireless Properties section, you will get two tabs one is “Connection” and the other is “Security”, click on the “Security” tab.
- in the security tab you will find three sections there, first one security type, second encryption type, and the last one is Network security key which means your WiFi Network’s password. you will your WiFi network’s password there hidden behind the *, that you can see by clicking on the Show characters check box.
So that’s how you can find your currently saved WiFi Network’s password on windows 10. Now let’s know, how you can find passwords for Wifi networks you’ve connected to previously on your windows 10 system.
How to Find Passwords for Wi-Fi Networks You’ve Previously Connected On Windows 10
Although it is very rare that you need the password of your old connected wifi network, but there are some circumstances when we need the old password. So in those situations, without facing any problem, you can find the passwords of your old wifi network in your windows 10 system, for which you only have to follow a few simple steps…
- Turn on your Windows 10 pc and press Windows + R, now type CMD to open the command prompt.
- In command prompt type the following command…
netsh wlan show profiles
- After entering the command hit enter, this will show you a list of all the Wi-Fi networks you’ve previously connected, now to get the password of one them, type the following command…
netsh wlan show profile name=profilename key=clear
Remember in this command replace the “profilename” word with the name of the WiFi profile, which profile’s password you want to know.
- After giving that command, you will get all the details about the searched WiFi profile and to get the Wi-Fi password, Look for the “Key Content” line.
So that’s how you can find passwords for WiFi networks you’ve previously connected on Windows 10. Hopefully, now you may have known that what to do when you lost or forgot your wifi network’s password, but still if you face any problem to find wifi password in Windows 10 you can ask us in the comments section.
What is An XML File and How to Open It?
For the last 23 years, XML has been used as a data format through which data can be transported easily between different networks, applications, and organizations. XML is a markup language developed by the W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) that fulfills the limitations of HTML. You must also have seen or heard about the XML file occasionally. Often when users first encounter the XML files, they get a little confused as to how to open the XML file? So in today’s our article we are going to talk about the same, today we will know how to open an XML file? But before starting that, let’s take a look at what is XML file…
What is XML File
As I mentioned, XML is a Markup Language developed by the World Wide Web Consortium. HTML as we know is a very popular markup language. HTML is used to display page data. Data is often stored inside HTML pages and it contains more than 100 tags, all these tags are very difficult to remember and use. XML was developed to solve all these problems. XML is used to store and organize data.
It is also important to know that XML is not a replacement for HTML. XML and HTML can be used combined. The combined version of XML and HTML is called X-HTML. XML has played a very important role in making the Internet more simple, comprehensive and useful. XML is commonly used for Data Exchange and XML files are saved with .xml Extension.
How to Open XML Files
There are many ways by which you can open XML files directly, you can open and edit them with any text editor, view them with any web browser, or use a website Which allows you to view, edit, and even convert them to other formats. We divided these ways into four different categories so you can understand and use any one of them easily, so let’s see, what are the four ways with which you can open an XML file?
Open An XML File Using a Text Editor
This is the first and most used way to open an XML file. XML files are encoded in plaintext, that’s why you can open them in any text editor. You can use this method by following these steps…
- Select the XML file you want to open in a text editor then right-click the XML file and select the option”Open With.” Now you will see a list of programs to open the file in.
- From the list, select “Notepad”, in your mac system select “TextEdit”. Both of these are the pre-installed text editors, You can use more advanced code editors like Notepad++ or TextMate as well, which can be useful for syntax highlighting and advanced editing.
- Your last action will open the XML file in the text editor, but as you can see in the image above, it loses most of its formatting and crams the whole thing onto just two lines of the document, and for a much better and explained view advanced tool like Notepad++. Now to find the information you are looking for using the tag labels, usually, the labels will be fairly self-explanatory and allow you to browse through the data and find the accurate information you want.
Note : You might see at the top, which indicates that the following content is in XML format.
Open An XML File Using a Web Browser
The second method in our list to open an XML file is the Web Browser method. Opening an XML file in a browser can be slightly easier than any Text editor and that is because most browsers automatically indent nested tags and allow you to collapse each section of the XML tree. So follow these steps to open an XML file using a web browser…
- Select the XML file you want to open in the web browser then right-click on the XML file and select the option”Open With.” Now you will see a list of programs to open the file in.
- From the list, select any web browser in which you want to open the file. Although most of the time your web browser will already be in the list of suggested programs, if it is not, then you will have to browse for it on your computer and select it from there.
- Now the selected XML file will open in a new tab in the web browser. In the browser, all of the contents will be displayed, and as i said above your browser will automatically indent nested tags. And that makes it easier to understand which data belongs to which set.
So that’s how you can open an XML file using a browser. And another big advantage of using a browser to read XML files is getting the ability to control like you can expand or minimize it by clicking on lick the arrows or +/- buttons next to each section.
Open An XML File Using Excel
People often suggest adopting this method, because Excel shows the data of the XML file as a table, which can be useful for visually processing the information. So to use this method follow these steps…
- Excel will not usually pop up as a suggested program in the list, so it is better to open the excel first, so open the excel and click on the “File” option and then select “Open.”
- Now from the menu browse the XML file you want to open, so find it and then click on the open button.
- After that, you will be asked for “how you would like to open this file?” So select “As an XML table.” Your this action will convert the XML file into an excel file.
- Now you can read your XML file, You will find that your XML file is organized as a table based on the tag structure, and to customize the table from Excel you can also use sorting and filtering tools.
You may have found difficulties rendering complex XML files as tables, if your XML file contains too many nested tags, you can use the XML viewer instead, which would be a better option.
Open An XML File Using XML Viewer
If you are dealing with a lot of XML files, then an XML a viewer, or XML editor will prove to be a better option for you. These viewers and editors can make complex XML files very easy to handle. There are lots of free and paid applications are available and you can choose any one as per your requirement. If you need to view or edit too many XML files, choose a professional XML editor that will allow you to automate and collaborate on large XML projects.
There are a few free online XML editors available such as TutorialsPoint.com, XMLGrid.net, and CodeBeautify.org, all of these XML editors let you view and edit your XML files. So use one of them as per your needs and then open your XML in it and then you can read it or edit it. After you’ve done your editing, you can download the changed XML file, or even you can convert it to a different format.
So these are the four ways to open an XML file, hope you understand all the four ways now let’s see how you can convert an XML file.
How To Convert XML Files
So as I said there are dozens of XML editors which can edit and convert XML files and all of them may have their different processes, so here for giving you a little bit of idea that how you can edit your file here we’ll be using CodeBeautify.org.
- Open your browser and visit CodeBeautify.org, once the website opens you will see several options there so first to view your file click on “XML viewer” from the “Popular Functionality” category.
- On the XML viewer page you will get three sections, first XML input second options bar and third result. So from the options bar select the “Browse” button and then find and select the XML file you want to open. You can also select the “Load URL” button to pull XML from an online source.
- After opening the XML file now you can select an option from option bar that how you want to view your XML file in the result section.
- You can select the “Tree View” button to see your XML file data in a nicely formatted tree structure with all your tags on the left in orange and the attributes to the right of the tags.
- You can choose the “Beautify” option to see the XML file data in neat and easy-to-read lines.
- You can also select the “Minify” button to see your XML file data using the least amount of white space possible. This option will attempt to put every single piece of data on one line. This option will become helpful when you trying to make the file smaller to save some space.
- After getting a brief view and edit your XML file data select the “XML to JSON” button to convert the XML to JSON format. Then use the “Download” button to download any changes you’ve made as a new XML file. You can also use the option “Export to CSV” to save your XML file data as a comma-separated values file.
So that’s how you can open an XML file and convert it. Hopefully, now you know how to open an XML file and edit it and convert it but still if there is any question in mind about how to open an XML file you can ask us in the comments section.