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What is Sundial, How it Works & How to Setup a Sundial?



what is a sundial and how a sundial works, how to setupa a sundial

Now if I ask you What time is it now, then you have a number of options to give me the answer such as you can see the time in your mobile or laptop and tell me, you can see time in your wristwatch, If you want, you can use the clock on the wall in front of you. But have you ever thought that in the old times when there was no mobile and laptop, neither the clocks were invented, then that time without any gadget how did people detect the time on a daily basis? So the answer is Sundial.

What Is Sundial

Sundial is a device used to detect the time in the old days when clocks were not invented. The sundial tells the time on the basis of changes in the state of the sun. Sundial looks like a very simple and ordinary device, It is made up of two things, the first one is a flat surface a circular or rectangular plate, in which the hours are graduated, and the other one is a thin triangle rod, which is known as the gnomon, and it is attached at the top of the rectangular plate.

How To Setup A Sundial

For a sundial to work properly, it is also necessary to set it up correctly, and for that, you have to take care of a few things.

  1. Before installing Sundial in any place, check the place, that place should be level and the sunlight is fully visible there without any interruption.
  2. Different types of the sundial are available in the market, mostly are verticle, so if you are using a verticle sundial then don’t forget to place it on a sunny, south-facing wall, it should be.
  3. While placing the sundial, keep in mind that it should be installed in such a way that the gnomon is pointing towards the celestial north. Keep in mind that I have told the celestial north, do not keep it towards the magnetic north of compass.

So these are some points that you have to take care of while placing the sundial. Now let’s see how a sundial works..

How Sundial Works

As I mentioned above, that place Sundial in such a place where it can meet the sunlight completely. Then when the sunlight falls on the sundial, the gnomon casts a shadow that falls on the attached plate in which the hours are graduated and this indicates the time. And as the day progresses and the sun’s position changes in the sky, shadow shows different times in the plate below, that’s how we get the right time with sundial device.

However, now the sundials available in the market have been made with such good methods and techniques that it is easy to calculate time from them. But earlier it was not so, in the old-time, people used to make it by themselves without using any machine on land or any other worthless things, yet they were able to accurately calculate the time, now you should be wondering how they could be able to do this? So they were able to do that just because of the right calculation of the change in the direction of the sun, so let’s know-how?

As we know, the Sundial uses soler time to indicates the correct time, solar time is obtained directly from the Sun’s position, and to calculate the changing state of the sun, we have to calculate that how much the Sun’s position changes in an hour. So it is easy to calculate it, We know that the Earth revolves around the Sun, due to which the state of the Sun changes. It takes 24 hours for the earth to rotate 360 ​​°, that means, in an hour the earth revolves around 360 ° / 24 h = 15 °, which means the position of the sun changes 15° in every one hour, and thus people from old time calculates the time with the sundial. And this is the basic way to calculate time with it even today.

But there are some factors that affect the calculation of time from the sundial, about which you have to be careful such as Latitude and Longitude. A sundial that is telling the right time in London, it is not necessary that it will be work correctly in Paris as well because due to the different latitudes, the sun’s path is different in each place.

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So this is everything about sundial, Hopefully, this article will prove useful to you. Still, if you have any questions in your mind such as what is a sundial and how it works, so you can ask us in the comments section.

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How Glass is Made in Factory |Process of Making Glass




How Glass is made

Glass, a special kind of metal from which many useful things can be made. We are surrounded by things made of glass, whether it be the glass windows of our house, the windshield of our car, the showcase of our house or our mirror in which we see the reflection of ourselves. Despite having so much available around us, many of us are unaware of how glass is made, and where from it came the very first time. So let’s know everything important about glass and start it by knowing process of making glass…

How Glass is Made

Glass is an amorphous solid. The glass is usually brittle and often optically transparent. Glass is a transparent or opaque material made of inorganic materials, from which many other things are produced. The invention of glass was a huge event for the world and glass has great importance in today’s scientific progress.

Only a very few people know this and you may be also surprised to know that glass is made of sand because the most important material for making glass is silica, which is an integral part of sand.

Silica is found in a free state in nature and is also found as silicate compounds. Silica is most commonly found in quartz form. Now this question will definitely be in your mind that, which type of sand is suitable for making glass, is it the exact sand that we see around us, or any special sand? So the most suitable sand for making glass is one in which the silica content is at least 99 percent and iron as ferric oxide (Fe2O3) is less than 0.1 percent. The sand particles should also be 0.5–0.25 millimeters in diameter. Sand is also washed by water to produce good glass.

To make a glass, the sand and some other material are melted in a furnace at about 1500 degrees Celsius and then after melting perfectly, the molten glass is poured into the grooves, so we can make our desired things. This process looks quite simple, but to make glass you must be proficient in this process.

The most common glass is soda-lime glass which has been used for centuries to make windows and glass glasses etc. The soda-lime glass contains approximately 75% silica (SiO2), sodium oxide (Na2O) and lime (CaO), and many other substances in small quantities.

It is also very important to have some alkaline substances like sodium carbonate for making normal glass. With this mixture, the liquid content is reduced and the fluidization process becomes simple. The glass that is formed by the dissolution of these two substances is known as water glass because it is water-soluble. To make the glass permanent, some type of dibasic oxides such as calcium oxide (lime) or sis oxide also has to be added. Each substance produces certain properties in glass and keeping these properties in mind, mixtures of glass are made.

History Of Glass

Although there is no complete evidence that shows how and when the glass was first discovered but according to some old saying, Humans came to know about glass when some traders placed food vessels on clay slopes on the coastline of Phineasia in Syria. When the fire ignited, they saw a stream of liquefied glass flowing. This glass was formed by the combination of sand and Shore.

Historically, the first method of producing a glass-like glow on utensils was invented in Mesopotamia (Iraq) about 12,000 years before Christ. The earliest glass found in Egypt in the form of molded amulets believed to be 7,000 years before Christ.

With the passage of time, the manufacture of different types of glass in each country progressed with its requirements and scientific advancement. England, France, Germany, and the United States owe a lot of credit for the modern growth of the glass industry.

Read Also: Do Plants Really Feel Pain?

So hopefully, now you know everything about glass such as how glass is made or the history of glass and the process of making glass in factories but still, if you have any questions in your mind you can ask us in the comments section.

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Science Explain

Why does the Moon Actually Change its Shape Everyday?




Why does the Moon Actually Change its Shape Everyday

Every night we see the moon in a new shape, the phases of the moon changes every day, and that we all have watcher and witnessed, so does the moon really change its shape? Can it happen? So what is the reasons, let’s know about it….

Who does not cherish the fine arts of the moon? Where in the sky Sun is always seen in a perfectly spherical shape, but the same moon changes its shape from day to day. This rise and fall of the moon always continues in a sequence. There comes a time when the moon becomes completely lost, which we call the new moon, and when the moon comes in its full form, it is called a full moon. The journey from full moon to new moon takes 15 days. It takes 15 days to reach new moon from a full moon, and again 15 days for the full moon from newmoon. However, if seen completely, there is a difference of about twenty-nine days between one full moon to another full moon. This whole process of changing its shapes known as “phases of moon.”

Before understanding this, it is necessary to know that, like many planets and natural satellite, the moon does not have any light of its own, rather it is the light of the sun falling on it which is reflected to us. When any round object is illuminated, then half of its front is illuminated, but the light does not reach the back part and remains dark there. We can see the same part of the moon which is illuminated. But due to the orbit of the moon, we are not always able to see even that half.

In short, The phase of the moon is how much of the moon appears to us on Earth to be illuminated by the sun.

As I already mentioned, in every 29.53 days the phases of the moon make a complete cycle. As the moon circles the earth, we can only see a portion of the illuminated side of the moon. As the moon orbits or circles the Earth, the phase changes. We’ll start with what is called the New Moon phase. This is where we can’t see any of the lighted side of the moon.

At the beginning of this phase, the moon lies between our Earth and the Sun, and as the Moon revolves around the Earth, we begin to see more and more illuminated sides of the Moon, and this process continues until finally, the Moon does not reach the opposite direction of the earth from sun and we get a full moon. And then as the moon revolves around the Earth, we see less and and less of the lighted side.

So it would not be wrong to say that we have a full moon every night, but we are able to see only the part which has illuminated by sunlight. So it is clear now that the moon does not change its shape, it always remains the same, but it visible in different shapes because of sunlight reflections.

Read Also: How does that ring visible around the moon

Hopefully, now you may have understood what is the phases of the moon and why moon changes its shape every night. But still, if you have any questions About phases of moon so you can ask us in the comments section.

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What are Ship Scrap Yards And What is Ship Breaking




What are Ship Scrap Yards And What is Ship Breaking

Like all other machines, the ship also has a lifespan. The life span of modern-day ships is 25 to 30 years. But do you know what happens after that? What happens to the ship when it retires after completing its lifespan. How does a ship die? So after completing its life span, a ship is sent to ship scrap yards, where its parts are broken and sold as scrap.

What are Ship Scrap Yards And What is Ship Breaking

What ship breaking yards are, it becomes clear in its name, ship breaking yards are places where retired ships are brought and broken into junk, and that junk is sold to reuse. Ship scrap yards are also known as ship grave yards, these are considered as the last designation of the ships. Ships at ship scrap yards are broken by different methods. Ship-breaking or ship demolition is a type of ship salvage that involves the breakdown of entire or significant parts of a ship, which is then sold for reuse or for the extraction of raw materials, mainly in the form of scrap. This process, which occurs in a ship scrap yard, is also known as ship dismantling, ship breaking, or ship recycling.

After a certain lifespan, it is difficult and accidentally dangerous to maneuver ships, hence they are retired. But keeping them in the same condition is just a siege of the place, so they are sent to the ship scrap yard, where the ship’s material, especially steel, is recycled through the ship-breaking process to make new products. This reduces the mining of iron ore demand and reduces energy use in the steelmaking process.

The Market Of Ship Scrap Yards

The sea connects all countries, and therefore ships are in almost every country, but still, ship scrap yards are not available in every country. This is a little surprising, but there are many reasons behind this, the main one being the protection of the environment. Ship breaking is a very large industry and is also known as a very dangerous industry. In this work, different toxic winds and toxic substances spread the environment. In many countries this work is almost banned, they sell their retired ships to other countries, where this work is mainly done.

The largest stakeholders in the worldwide ship scrapping or ship breaking market are India, Bangladesh, China, and Pakistan, which are the global hub of ship breaking. Chittagong Ship Breaking Yard in Bangladesh, Alang in India, and Gadani in Pakistan are the largest ship graveyards in the world. About 225,000 workers work in ship breaking yards in India, Bangladesh, China, and Pakistan. In these developing countries, workers are ready to do more work with fewer wages. In Bangladesh, recycled steel comprises 20% of the country’s needs and in India, it is about 10%.

The following yards are some of the world’s largest ship-breaking yards…

  • Chittagong Ship Breaking yard, Bangladesh
  • Galloo, Ghent, formerly Van Heyghen Recycling, Belgium
  • Changjiang Ship Breaking yard, located in Jiangyin, China
  • Alang-Sosiya Ship Breaking Yard
    Steel Industrials Kerala Limited, India
  • Gadani Ship Breaking yard, Pakistan
  • Aliağa Ship Breaking Yard, Turkey
  • Able UK, Graythorpe Dock, Teesside, United Kingdom
  • Esco Marine, Brownsville, Texas
    International Shipbreaking, Brownsville, Texas, USA

Ship Breaking Process

The process of ship scraping begins with an auction for which the highest bidder wins the contract, although sometimes the deal is also completed directly by the agent. After completing the necessary documentation proceedings, the ship-breaking company or shipping yard receives the ship from an international broker who deals in old ships. After obtaining all types of permits, ships are gently sloped on sand-sloping beaches at high tide to access them for disassembly.

Then the process of dismantling the ship begins, it takes up to three months to break a typical size cargo ship of about 40,000 tons, with 50 workers carrying out this task. The process of decommissioning in ship breaking yards begins with the extraction of fuel and fire fighting liquid, which is sold to the business. Any reusable items such as furniture and machinery, wires – are sent to local markets or merchandise.

Sledgehammer and oxy-acetylene gas-torches are mainly used to cut steel rudders. For low cost and high profit, usually, ship scrap yard owner does not use cranes on ships. After detachment, the hull collapses are pulled by workers and bulldozers. These are then taken away from the coast and cut into small pieces in the godowns. 90% of the steel is re-rollable scrap: high quality steel plates that are heated and reused as reinforcement bar for reinforcement, and after that remainder is transported to electric arc furnaces to be melted down into ingots for re-rolling mills. Substances that are expensive for disposal of hazardous waste are discarded on the beach or set on fire, including old batteries and half-empty cans of paint.

Health And Environmental Issues

As I mentioned above, the ship scrapping industry is large as well as quite dangerous, the workers working in it are always surrounded by life-threatening risks. Working in the ship’s scrapping yard is very difficult as well as very deadly. Most of the ships are simply run ashore in developing countries for disassembly, where asbestos, lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, and heavy metals are always a major threat to workers. Knees caused by explosive and fire smoke, mutations from falling metal, cancer, and toxins are a regular occurrence disease in the industry.

Breaking the fuel tanks, without extracting flammable gas in it caused several blasts and many are injured from these kinds of explosions. In Bangladesh, a local watchdog group claims that one worker dies a week and one is injured per day on average.

Apart from the health issues of workers, Ship breaking yard industry has also become a major concern of environmental issues. And this has mostly happened in developing countries due to working with loose or unencumbered environmental laws, allowing large amounts of highly toxic material to escape into the general environment and cause serious health problems among shipbreakers, local populations, and wildlife.

Read Also: Why Do Medical Researchers Use Mice for lab experiments?

So this is everything about ship scrap yards and ship scrapping process. Still, if there are any questions in your mind such as what is ship scrap yards and how ship becomes scrap so you can ask us in the comments section.

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