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How Plants Breathe?



how to plants breathe

Plants also breathe like humans, and in this process, they take carbon dioxide and leave oxygen out, we all know this, but do you know how do they accomplish this process? How plants breathe? No one knew the answer before the recent research happened.

Plants have very small pores in their leaves, which are called stomata, as well as a complex internal network of air channels, with the help of which the plants are able to breathe, Botanists have known about this since the 19th century. But since then, it remains a mystery that how those channels form in the right places to provide a stable flow of CO2 to every plant cell. But now after about two centuries, scientists have taken the curtain from this mystery and have discovered how plants breathe and how plants create networks of air channels.

In recent research, which is led by scientists at the University of Sheffield’s Institute for Sustainable Food and published in Nature Communications, used genetic manipulation techniques to prove that as much as a stomata, the more airspace is formed. Channels work like bronchioles – small pathways which carry air to exchange surfaces of the lungs of human and animal. And in this research, they showed that CO2 movement through pores determines the size and scale of the air channel network most likely. It was joint research, scientists from the University of Nottingham and Lancaster University also participated in this research.

This quest will give us a lot to learn about the internal structure of a leaf, as well as how the tissues can affect the work and how it can be developed – that could have ramifications beyond plant biology, in areas like evolutionary biology.

This research has also shown that wheat plants have been breed(by our old generation) to reduce their leaves and low air channels, which makes their leaves denser so they are grown with less water. The facts that came out after this new discovery could lead to the dominant crops such as wheat change of their internal structure of the leaves and can make them even more water-efficient. This approach is being led by other scientists in the Institute for Sustainable Food, who have developed wheat and climate-made rice which can successfully face the situation of extreme drought.

“Until now, the way plants form their intricate patterns of air channels has remained surprisingly mysterious to plant scientists.

“This major discovery shows that the movement of air through leaves shapes their internal workings — which has implications for the way we think about evolution in plants.” Said Professor Andrew Fleming, Institute for Sustainable Food at the University of Sheffield.

“The fact that humans have already inadvertently influenced the way plants to breathe by breeding wheat that uses less water suggests we could target these air channel networks to develop crops that can survive the more extreme droughts we expect to see with climate breakdown.” also added.

how do plants breathe

Dr. Marjorie Lundgren, Leverhulme Early Career Fellow at Lancaster University, said: “Scientists have suspected for a long time that the development of stomata and the development of air spaces within a leaf are coordinated. However, we weren’t really sure which drove the other. So this started as a ‘what came first, the chicken or the egg?’ question.

“Using a clever set of experiments involving X-ray CT image analyses, our collaborative team answered these questions using species with very different leaf structures. While we show that the development of stomata initiates the expansion of air spaces, we took it one step further to show that the stomata actually need to be exchanging gases in order for the air spaces to expand. This paints a much more interesting story, linked to physiology.”

The X-ray imaging work was done at the Hounsfield Facility at the University of Nottingham, the partner college in this research. The Director of the Facility, Professor Sacha Mooney, said: “Until recently the application of X-ray CT, or CAT scanning, in plant sciences has mainly been focused on visualizing the hidden half of the plant — the roots — as they grow in soil.

“Working with our partners in Sheffield we have now developed the technique to visualize the cellular structure of a plant leaf in 3D — allowing us to see how the complex network of air spaces inside the leaf controls its behavior. It’s very exciting.”

Read Also: What is A Radar and How It Works?

So these are the views of some of the senior members of this research. So now we have understood how plants breathe and how plants create networks of air channels. Now it will be exciting to see how scientists will use the facts obtained from this new discovery to develop new plants such as a water-efficient plant. Hopefully, today’s article will prove useful to you, and if you any questions regarding how plants breathe and how plants create networks of air channels so you can ask us in the comments section.

Source – University of Sheffield

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Science Explain

Why does the Moon Actually Change its Shape Everyday?




Why does the Moon Actually Change its Shape Everyday

Every night we see the moon in a new shape, the phases of the moon changes every day, and that we all have watcher and witnessed, so does the moon really change its shape? Can it happen? So what is the reasons, let’s know about it….

Who does not cherish the fine arts of the moon? Where in the sky Sun is always seen in a perfectly spherical shape, but the same moon changes its shape from day to day. This rise and fall of the moon always continues in a sequence. There comes a time when the moon becomes completely lost, which we call the new moon, and when the moon comes in its full form, it is called a full moon. The journey from full moon to new moon takes 15 days. It takes 15 days to reach new moon from a full moon, and again 15 days for the full moon from newmoon. However, if seen completely, there is a difference of about twenty-nine days between one full moon to another full moon. This whole process of changing its shapes known as “phases of moon.”

Before understanding this, it is necessary to know that, like many planets and natural satellite, the moon does not have any light of its own, rather it is the light of the sun falling on it which is reflected to us. When any round object is illuminated, then half of its front is illuminated, but the light does not reach the back part and remains dark there. We can see the same part of the moon which is illuminated. But due to the orbit of the moon, we are not always able to see even that half.

In short, The phase of the moon is how much of the moon appears to us on Earth to be illuminated by the sun.

As I already mentioned, in every 29.53 days the phases of the moon make a complete cycle. As the moon circles the earth, we can only see a portion of the illuminated side of the moon. As the moon orbits or circles the Earth, the phase changes. We’ll start with what is called the New Moon phase. This is where we can’t see any of the lighted side of the moon.

At the beginning of this phase, the moon lies between our Earth and the Sun, and as the Moon revolves around the Earth, we begin to see more and more illuminated sides of the Moon, and this process continues until finally, the Moon does not reach the opposite direction of the earth from sun and we get a full moon. And then as the moon revolves around the Earth, we see less and and less of the lighted side.

So it would not be wrong to say that we have a full moon every night, but we are able to see only the part which has illuminated by sunlight. So it is clear now that the moon does not change its shape, it always remains the same, but it visible in different shapes because of sunlight reflections.

Read Also: How does that ring visible around the moon

Hopefully, now you may have understood what is the phases of the moon and why moon changes its shape every night. But still, if you have any questions About phases of moon so you can ask us in the comments section.

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What are Ship Scrap Yards And What is Ship Breaking




What are Ship Scrap Yards And What is Ship Breaking

Like all other machines, the ship also has a lifespan. The life span of modern-day ships is 25 to 30 years. But do you know what happens after that? What happens to the ship when it retires after completing its lifespan. How does a ship die? So after completing its life span, a ship is sent to ship scrap yards, where its parts are broken and sold as scrap.

What are Ship Scrap Yards And What is Ship Breaking

What ship breaking yards are, it becomes clear in its name, ship breaking yards are places where retired ships are brought and broken into junk, and that junk is sold to reuse. Ship scrap yards are also known as ship grave yards, these are considered as the last designation of the ships. Ships at ship scrap yards are broken by different methods. Ship-breaking or ship demolition is a type of ship salvage that involves the breakdown of entire or significant parts of a ship, which is then sold for reuse or for the extraction of raw materials, mainly in the form of scrap. This process, which occurs in a ship scrap yard, is also known as ship dismantling, ship breaking, or ship recycling.

After a certain lifespan, it is difficult and accidentally dangerous to maneuver ships, hence they are retired. But keeping them in the same condition is just a siege of the place, so they are sent to the ship scrap yard, where the ship’s material, especially steel, is recycled through the ship-breaking process to make new products. This reduces the mining of iron ore demand and reduces energy use in the steelmaking process.

The Market Of Ship Scrap Yards

The sea connects all countries, and therefore ships are in almost every country, but still, ship scrap yards are not available in every country. This is a little surprising, but there are many reasons behind this, the main one being the protection of the environment. Ship breaking is a very large industry and is also known as a very dangerous industry. In this work, different toxic winds and toxic substances spread the environment. In many countries this work is almost banned, they sell their retired ships to other countries, where this work is mainly done.

The largest stakeholders in the worldwide ship scrapping or ship breaking market are India, Bangladesh, China, and Pakistan, which are the global hub of ship breaking. Chittagong Ship Breaking Yard in Bangladesh, Alang in India, and Gadani in Pakistan are the largest ship graveyards in the world. About 225,000 workers work in ship breaking yards in India, Bangladesh, China, and Pakistan. In these developing countries, workers are ready to do more work with fewer wages. In Bangladesh, recycled steel comprises 20% of the country’s needs and in India, it is about 10%.

The following yards are some of the world’s largest ship-breaking yards…

  • Chittagong Ship Breaking yard, Bangladesh
  • Galloo, Ghent, formerly Van Heyghen Recycling, Belgium
  • Changjiang Ship Breaking yard, located in Jiangyin, China
  • Alang-Sosiya Ship Breaking Yard
    Steel Industrials Kerala Limited, India
  • Gadani Ship Breaking yard, Pakistan
  • Aliağa Ship Breaking Yard, Turkey
  • Able UK, Graythorpe Dock, Teesside, United Kingdom
  • Esco Marine, Brownsville, Texas
    International Shipbreaking, Brownsville, Texas, USA

Ship Breaking Process

The process of ship scraping begins with an auction for which the highest bidder wins the contract, although sometimes the deal is also completed directly by the agent. After completing the necessary documentation proceedings, the ship-breaking company or shipping yard receives the ship from an international broker who deals in old ships. After obtaining all types of permits, ships are gently sloped on sand-sloping beaches at high tide to access them for disassembly.

Then the process of dismantling the ship begins, it takes up to three months to break a typical size cargo ship of about 40,000 tons, with 50 workers carrying out this task. The process of decommissioning in ship breaking yards begins with the extraction of fuel and fire fighting liquid, which is sold to the business. Any reusable items such as furniture and machinery, wires – are sent to local markets or merchandise.

Sledgehammer and oxy-acetylene gas-torches are mainly used to cut steel rudders. For low cost and high profit, usually, ship scrap yard owner does not use cranes on ships. After detachment, the hull collapses are pulled by workers and bulldozers. These are then taken away from the coast and cut into small pieces in the godowns. 90% of the steel is re-rollable scrap: high quality steel plates that are heated and reused as reinforcement bar for reinforcement, and after that remainder is transported to electric arc furnaces to be melted down into ingots for re-rolling mills. Substances that are expensive for disposal of hazardous waste are discarded on the beach or set on fire, including old batteries and half-empty cans of paint.

Health And Environmental Issues

As I mentioned above, the ship scrapping industry is large as well as quite dangerous, the workers working in it are always surrounded by life-threatening risks. Working in the ship’s scrapping yard is very difficult as well as very deadly. Most of the ships are simply run ashore in developing countries for disassembly, where asbestos, lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, and heavy metals are always a major threat to workers. Knees caused by explosive and fire smoke, mutations from falling metal, cancer, and toxins are a regular occurrence disease in the industry.

Breaking the fuel tanks, without extracting flammable gas in it caused several blasts and many are injured from these kinds of explosions. In Bangladesh, a local watchdog group claims that one worker dies a week and one is injured per day on average.

Apart from the health issues of workers, Ship breaking yard industry has also become a major concern of environmental issues. And this has mostly happened in developing countries due to working with loose or unencumbered environmental laws, allowing large amounts of highly toxic material to escape into the general environment and cause serious health problems among shipbreakers, local populations, and wildlife.

Read Also: Why Do Medical Researchers Use Mice for lab experiments?

So this is everything about ship scrap yards and ship scrapping process. Still, if there are any questions in your mind such as what is ship scrap yards and how ship becomes scrap so you can ask us in the comments section.

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Everything About Field-effect transistors




what is field effect transistors

You must have often heard this name Field-effect transistor, electric field people know it by its short-form FET. But do you exactly what it is and for what it is used? I know most of you do not know about it, Although many of you have heard this name many times before, but still you never paid attention to it. So in this article, we will know about Field-effect transistors, what it is, and its usage.

What is Field-effect transistor

The field-effect transistor which is known as FET is an electronic device that uses an electric field to control the flow of current. Like many other transistors, the field-effect transistor has also three terminals which are called ‘source’, ‘drain’, and ‘gate’. FETs control the flow of current by the application of a voltage to the gate and applying a threshold voltage to the gate allows a current to flow from the source to the drain. The field-effect transistor can be used as a switch by increasing and decreasing the gate voltage around its threshold value. By increasing the gate voltage above the threshold, Field Effect Transistor operates as current amplifiers.

There is another name by which field-effect transistor is known, and that is “Unipolar Transistor.” And the reason why it is known as Unipolar Transistor is that they involve a single-carrier-type operation. That is, FETs use holes or electrons as charge carriers in their operation, but not both.

The Beginning Of Field Effect Transistor

It was 1925 when the first time the concept of a field-effect transistor (FET) was first patented and the Austro Hungarian physicist Julius Edgar Lilienfeld is the man who was behind it. Also, there was another man Pakar Heal, who did this in 1934. But unfortunately, both of them were unable to build a working practical semiconducting device based on their concept.

After the 17-year patent expired, in 1947, the transistor was observed and explained by William Schockley’s team at Bell Laboratories. Shockley initially attempted to build a working FET by trying to modulate the conductivity of a semiconductor but was also unsuccessful. The first FET device to be successfully built was the Junction Field-Effect Transistor (JFET) which was first patented in 1945 by Heinrich Welker. In 1950, two Japanese engineers Jun-ichi Nishizawa and Y. Watanabe invented a new type of JEFT, which known as the static induction transistor (SIT). In 1953 two engineers George F. Dacey and Ian M. Ross were built a working practical JFET and the special thing about this invention is that they built it by following Shockley’s theoretical treatment.

Although JFET was a very useful tool, it still had issues, and in the process to repair these issues many other variants of the field-effect transistor were invented. In 1959 there was a major change that came in the field of a field-effect transistor, and that change was the discovery of MOSFET i.e. metal – oxide – semiconductor field-effect transistor. The metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) was invented by Mohamed Atalla and Dawon Kahng.

After that in the field of field-effect transistor many other things also invented, such as CMOS (complementary MOS) by Chih-Tang Sah and Frank Wanlass at Fairchild Semiconductor in 1963, the first report of a floating-gate MOSFET by Dawon Kahng and Simon Sze in 1967 and a double-gate MOSFET was first demonstrated in 1984 by Electrotechnical Laboratory researchers Toshihiro Sekigawa and Yutaka Hayashi.

Terminals of Field Effect Transistor

As I mentioned above there are three terminals of field-effect transistor, Source, Drain, and Gate, so let’s take a short instruction of them…

  1. Source – Source (S), is the terminal through which the carriers enter the channel, and traditionally, current entering the channel at S is designated by IS.
  2. Drain – Drain (D), is the terminal through which the carriers leave the channel, and traditionally, current entering the channel at D is designated by ID and Drain-to-source voltage is VDS.
  3. Gate – Gate (G) is the terminal that modulates the channel conductivity and by applying a voltage to G, one can control ID.

Types Of Field Effect transistors

Although I mentioned some type or subtype of Field-effect transistors above but still there are so many others. Field-effect transistors have total 16 types, so here are the names…

The MOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor)

The JFET (junction field-effect transistor)

The MNOS (metal–nitride–oxide–semiconductor transistor)


The FREDFET (fast-reverse or fast-recovery epitaxial diode)

The HIGFET (heterostructure insulated-gate field-effect transistor)

The MODFET (modulation-doped field-effect transistor)

The TFET (tunnel field-effect transistor)

The HEMT (high-electron-mobility transistor)

The ISFET (ion-sensitive field-effect transistor)

The BioFET (Biologically sensitive field-effect transistor)

The MESFET (metal-semiconductor field-effect transistor)


The GNRFET (graphene nanoribbon field-effect transistor)

The VeSFET (vertical-slit field-effect transistor)

The CNTFET (carbon nanotube field-effect transistor)

The OFET (organic field-effect transistor)

The DNAFET (DNA field-effect transistor)

The QFET (quantum field-effect transistor)

The SB-FET (Schottky-barrier field-effect transistor)

So these are the types of field-effect transistors that are more than 20. At present, A MOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor) is the fundamental transistor behind most of the electronics including computers. MOSFET has a metal contact for the gate and it is separated from the bulk transistor (substrate) by an oxide layer, typically SiO2 (silicon dioxide) which makes sure no current flows through the gate.

Read Also: Everything About World’s First Digital Circuit Breaker

So that is the basic of field-effect transistor, in future we will learn more about it such as how field-effect transistor works and its advantages and disadvantages. Hopefully, today’s article will prove useful to you but still if you have any questions or concerns about field-effect transistors.

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