Glass, a special kind of metal from which many useful things can be made. We are surrounded by things made of glass, whether it be the glass windows of our house, the windshield of our car, the showcase of our house or our mirror in which we see the reflection of ourselves. Despite having so much available around us, many of us are unaware of how glass is made, and where from it came the very first time. So let’s know everything important about glass and start it by knowing process of making glass…
How Glass is Made
Glass is an amorphous solid. The glass is usually brittle and often optically transparent. Glass is a transparent or opaque material made of inorganic materials, from which many other things are produced. The invention of glass was a huge event for the world and glass has great importance in today’s scientific progress.
Only a very few people know this and you may be also surprised to know that glass is made of sand because the most important material for making glass is silica, which is an integral part of sand.
Silica is found in a free state in nature and is also found as silicate compounds. Silica is most commonly found in quartz form. Now this question will definitely be in your mind that, which type of sand is suitable for making glass, is it the exact sand that we see around us, or any special sand? So the most suitable sand for making glass is one in which the silica content is at least 99 percent and iron as ferric oxide (Fe2O3) is less than 0.1 percent. The sand particles should also be 0.5–0.25 millimeters in diameter. Sand is also washed by water to produce good glass.
To make a glass, the sand and some other material are melted in a furnace at about 1500 degrees Celsius and then after melting perfectly, the molten glass is poured into the grooves, so we can make our desired things. This process looks quite simple, but to make glass you must be proficient in this process.
The most common glass is soda-lime glass which has been used for centuries to make windows and glass glasses etc. The soda-lime glass contains approximately 75% silica (SiO2), sodium oxide (Na2O) and lime (CaO), and many other substances in small quantities.
It is also very important to have some alkaline substances like sodium carbonate for making normal glass. With this mixture, the liquid content is reduced and the fluidization process becomes simple. The glass that is formed by the dissolution of these two substances is known as water glass because it is water-soluble. To make the glass permanent, some type of dibasic oxides such as calcium oxide (lime) or sis oxide also has to be added. Each substance produces certain properties in glass and keeping these properties in mind, mixtures of glass are made.
History Of Glass
Although there is no complete evidence that shows how and when the glass was first discovered but according to some old saying, Humans came to know about glass when some traders placed food vessels on clay slopes on the coastline of Phineasia in Syria. When the fire ignited, they saw a stream of liquefied glass flowing. This glass was formed by the combination of sand and Shore.
Historically, the first method of producing a glass-like glow on utensils was invented in Mesopotamia (Iraq) about 12,000 years before Christ. The earliest glass found in Egypt in the form of molded amulets believed to be 7,000 years before Christ.
With the passage of time, the manufacture of different types of glass in each country progressed with its requirements and scientific advancement. England, France, Germany, and the United States owe a lot of credit for the modern growth of the glass industry.
So hopefully, now you know everything about glass such as how glass is made or the history of glass and the process of making glass in factories but still, if you have any questions in your mind you can ask us in the comments section.
About The World’s First Immortal Human Cell Line
Did you know, which were the world’s first immortal human cell line? I know most of us do not know about it, so HeLa cells are the first immortal human cell line. This cell line developed from a sample of cervical cancer cells which was taken from an African-American woman, Henrietta Lacks, on February 8, 1951. The name of this cell line, HeLa, also came from the name of the same African-American woman Henrietta Lacks, the name was composed by the mixing first two letters of Henrietta Lack’s first and last name. Henrietta Lacks herself did not even know about the removal of this cell line from her cells. After researching these cell lines, In 1953, Theodor Puck and Philip Marcus made a clone of hela, which became the first human cell to be cloned and then freely distributed samples of HeLa to other researchers.
Since the cells’ first mass replications, they have been used by researchers in several types of experiments, including disease research, gene mapping, the effects of toxic substances on organisms and radiation effects on humans. Although the primary use of the Hela cell line was for cancer research but HeLa cells gave many other medical breakthroughs and gave approximately 11,000 patents.
Why HeLa Cell Line Known As Immortal Cell Line?
These were the first human cells that grew up in a laboratory that was naturally “immortal”, which means that they do not die after a certain number of cell division. Usually, human cell culture dies within a few days after a set number of cell divisions, which process is called senescence. This causes a problem for the researchers because experiments with using normal cells can not be repeated on identical cells (clones), nor can the same cells be used for extended study. Cell biologist George Otto Gay took one of the HeLa cells and divide that cell, and found that if the cell was given proper nutrients and appropriate environment then the culture survived indefinitely. The original cells continued to mutate.
Hela cells are able to split frequently, they have an enzyme called telomerase, overactive telomerase rebuilds telomeres after each division, prevents cellular aging and cellular senescence, and allows permanent division of cells. Now, Hela has many strains, all get from the same cell. Along with this, HeLa cells grow easily and abnormally fast; they double cellular count in only 24 hours, making them ideal for large-scale testing. They grow so fast that they can contaminate other cell cultures and overtake them. Although there are other immortal human cells also exist but HeLa cell line is the first among them.
HeLa Cells Use in Research
As I mentioned above, HeLa cells used by researchers in several kinds of experiments such as disease research, gene mapping, the effects of toxic substances on organisms and radiation effects on humans, etc. In all these uses, in my opinion, the most important application of HeLa cells is in the development of the polio vaccine, and that was when polio was becoming one of the biggest deadly diseases. In 1953, a cell culture factory was established to supply salk and other labs along with HeLa cells, And in less than a year, the salak vaccine was prepared for human trials. Hela cells were also used in testing how the Parvovirus infects the cells of humans, dogs, and cats. These cells have also been used to research on viruses such as orophu virus (OROV).
In the year 2011, Hela cells were used in the researches of the novel Hepatamethin Dye IR-808 and other analogs, which are currently available for their unique uses in medical diagnostics, the development of theranostics, the individualized treatment of cancer patients with the aid of PDT, co-administration with other medicine, and irradiation. Also in the year 2014, HeLa cells were shown to be viable cell lines for tumor xenografts in C57BL / 6 naked mice, and later on to investigate the vivo effects of fluoxetine and cisplatin on cervical cancer.
So this everything about the world’s first immortal human cells, HeLa cells. Hopefully, now you may have understood what is HeLa cells and it’s immortality and advantages in researches. Still, if you any questions about the hela cell line or immortal human cell line so you can ask us in the comments section.
Why does the Moon Actually Change its Shape Everyday?
Every night we see the moon in a new shape, the phases of the moon changes every day, and that we all have watcher and witnessed, so does the moon really change its shape? Can it happen? So what is the reasons, let’s know about it….
Who does not cherish the fine arts of the moon? Where in the sky Sun is always seen in a perfectly spherical shape, but the same moon changes its shape from day to day. This rise and fall of the moon always continues in a sequence. There comes a time when the moon becomes completely lost, which we call the new moon, and when the moon comes in its full form, it is called a full moon. The journey from full moon to new moon takes 15 days. It takes 15 days to reach new moon from a full moon, and again 15 days for the full moon from newmoon. However, if seen completely, there is a difference of about twenty-nine days between one full moon to another full moon. This whole process of changing its shapes known as “phases of moon.”
Before understanding this, it is necessary to know that, like many planets and natural satellite, the moon does not have any light of its own, rather it is the light of the sun falling on it which is reflected to us. When any round object is illuminated, then half of its front is illuminated, but the light does not reach the back part and remains dark there. We can see the same part of the moon which is illuminated. But due to the orbit of the moon, we are not always able to see even that half.
In short, The phase of the moon is how much of the moon appears to us on Earth to be illuminated by the sun.
As I already mentioned, in every 29.53 days the phases of the moon make a complete cycle. As the moon circles the earth, we can only see a portion of the illuminated side of the moon. As the moon orbits or circles the Earth, the phase changes. We’ll start with what is called the New Moon phase. This is where we can’t see any of the lighted side of the moon.
At the beginning of this phase, the moon lies between our Earth and the Sun, and as the Moon revolves around the Earth, we begin to see more and more illuminated sides of the Moon, and this process continues until finally, the Moon does not reach the opposite direction of the earth from sun and we get a full moon. And then as the moon revolves around the Earth, we see less and and less of the lighted side.
So it would not be wrong to say that we have a full moon every night, but we are able to see only the part which has illuminated by sunlight. So it is clear now that the moon does not change its shape, it always remains the same, but it visible in different shapes because of sunlight reflections.
Hopefully, now you may have understood what is the phases of the moon and why moon changes its shape every night. But still, if you have any questions About phases of moon so you can ask us in the comments section.
What are Ship Scrap Yards And What is Ship Breaking
Like all other machines, the ship also has a lifespan. The life span of modern-day ships is 25 to 30 years. But do you know what happens after that? What happens to the ship when it retires after completing its lifespan. How does a ship die? So after completing its life span, a ship is sent to ship scrap yards, where its parts are broken and sold as scrap.
What are Ship Scrap Yards And What is Ship Breaking
What ship breaking yards are, it becomes clear in its name, ship breaking yards are places where retired ships are brought and broken into junk, and that junk is sold to reuse. Ship scrap yards are also known as ship grave yards, these are considered as the last designation of the ships. Ships at ship scrap yards are broken by different methods. Ship-breaking or ship demolition is a type of ship salvage that involves the breakdown of entire or significant parts of a ship, which is then sold for reuse or for the extraction of raw materials, mainly in the form of scrap. This process, which occurs in a ship scrap yard, is also known as ship dismantling, ship breaking, or ship recycling.
After a certain lifespan, it is difficult and accidentally dangerous to maneuver ships, hence they are retired. But keeping them in the same condition is just a siege of the place, so they are sent to the ship scrap yard, where the ship’s material, especially steel, is recycled through the ship-breaking process to make new products. This reduces the mining of iron ore demand and reduces energy use in the steelmaking process.
The Market Of Ship Scrap Yards
The sea connects all countries, and therefore ships are in almost every country, but still, ship scrap yards are not available in every country. This is a little surprising, but there are many reasons behind this, the main one being the protection of the environment. Ship breaking is a very large industry and is also known as a very dangerous industry. In this work, different toxic winds and toxic substances spread the environment. In many countries this work is almost banned, they sell their retired ships to other countries, where this work is mainly done.
The largest stakeholders in the worldwide ship scrapping or ship breaking market are India, Bangladesh, China, and Pakistan, which are the global hub of ship breaking. Chittagong Ship Breaking Yard in Bangladesh, Alang in India, and Gadani in Pakistan are the largest ship graveyards in the world. About 225,000 workers work in ship breaking yards in India, Bangladesh, China, and Pakistan. In these developing countries, workers are ready to do more work with fewer wages. In Bangladesh, recycled steel comprises 20% of the country’s needs and in India, it is about 10%.
The following yards are some of the world’s largest ship-breaking yards…
- Chittagong Ship Breaking yard, Bangladesh
- Galloo, Ghent, formerly Van Heyghen Recycling, Belgium
- Changjiang Ship Breaking yard, located in Jiangyin, China
- Alang-Sosiya Ship Breaking Yard
Steel Industrials Kerala Limited, India
- Gadani Ship Breaking yard, Pakistan
- Aliağa Ship Breaking Yard, Turkey
- Able UK, Graythorpe Dock, Teesside, United Kingdom
- Esco Marine, Brownsville, Texas
International Shipbreaking, Brownsville, Texas, USA
Ship Breaking Process
The process of ship scraping begins with an auction for which the highest bidder wins the contract, although sometimes the deal is also completed directly by the agent. After completing the necessary documentation proceedings, the ship-breaking company or shipping yard receives the ship from an international broker who deals in old ships. After obtaining all types of permits, ships are gently sloped on sand-sloping beaches at high tide to access them for disassembly.
Then the process of dismantling the ship begins, it takes up to three months to break a typical size cargo ship of about 40,000 tons, with 50 workers carrying out this task. The process of decommissioning in ship breaking yards begins with the extraction of fuel and fire fighting liquid, which is sold to the business. Any reusable items such as furniture and machinery, wires – are sent to local markets or merchandise.
Sledgehammer and oxy-acetylene gas-torches are mainly used to cut steel rudders. For low cost and high profit, usually, ship scrap yard owner does not use cranes on ships. After detachment, the hull collapses are pulled by workers and bulldozers. These are then taken away from the coast and cut into small pieces in the godowns. 90% of the steel is re-rollable scrap: high quality steel plates that are heated and reused as reinforcement bar for reinforcement, and after that remainder is transported to electric arc furnaces to be melted down into ingots for re-rolling mills. Substances that are expensive for disposal of hazardous waste are discarded on the beach or set on fire, including old batteries and half-empty cans of paint.
Health And Environmental Issues
As I mentioned above, the ship scrapping industry is large as well as quite dangerous, the workers working in it are always surrounded by life-threatening risks. Working in the ship’s scrapping yard is very difficult as well as very deadly. Most of the ships are simply run ashore in developing countries for disassembly, where asbestos, lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, and heavy metals are always a major threat to workers. Knees caused by explosive and fire smoke, mutations from falling metal, cancer, and toxins are a regular occurrence disease in the industry.
Breaking the fuel tanks, without extracting flammable gas in it caused several blasts and many are injured from these kinds of explosions. In Bangladesh, a local watchdog group claims that one worker dies a week and one is injured per day on average.
Apart from the health issues of workers, Ship breaking yard industry has also become a major concern of environmental issues. And this has mostly happened in developing countries due to working with loose or unencumbered environmental laws, allowing large amounts of highly toxic material to escape into the general environment and cause serious health problems among shipbreakers, local populations, and wildlife.
So this is everything about ship scrap yards and ship scrapping process. Still, if there are any questions in your mind such as what is ship scrap yards and how ship becomes scrap so you can ask us in the comments section.